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It is well-known that many machine learning models are susceptible to so-called "adversarial attacks," in which an attacker evades a classifier by making small perturbations to inputs. This paper discusses how industrial copyright detection tools, which serve a central role on the web, are susceptible to adversarial attacks. We discuss a range of copyright detection systems, and why they are particularly vulnerable to attacks. These vulnerabilities are especially apparent for neural network based systems. As a proof of concept, we describe a well-known music identification method, and implement this system in the form of a neural net. We then attack this system using simple gradient methods. Adversarial music created this way successfully fools industrial systems, including the AudioTag copyright detector and YouTube's Content ID system. Our goal is to raise awareness of the threats posed by adversarial examples in this space, and to highlight the importance of hardening copyright detection systems to attacks.
Transfer learning, in which a network is trained on one task and re-purposed on another, is often used to produce neural network classifiers when data is scarce or full-scale training is too costly. When the goal is to produce a model that is not only accurate but also adversarially robust, data scarcity and computational limitations become even more cumbersome. We consider robust transfer learning, in which we transfer not only performance but also robustness from a source model to a target domain. We start by observing that robust networks contain robust feature extractors. By training classifiers on top of these feature extractors, we produce new models that inherit the robustness of their parent networks. We then consider the case of fine-tuning a network by re-training end-to-end in the target domain. When using lifelong learning strategies, this process preserves the robustness of the source network while achieving high accuracy. By using such strategies, it is possible to produce accurate and robust models with little data, and without the cost of adversarial training.
Prior to seeking professional medical care it is increasingly common for patients to use online resources such as automated symptom checkers. Many such systems attempt to provide a differential diagnosis based on the symptoms elucidated from the user, which may lead to anxiety if life or limb-threatening conditions are part of the list, a phenomenon termed 'cyberchondria' [1]. Systems that provide advice on where to seek help, rather than a diagnosis, are equally popular, and in our view provide the most useful information. In this technical report we describe how such a triage system can be modelled computationally, how medical insights can be translated into triage flows, and how such systems can be validated and tested. We present babylon check, our commercially deployed automated triage system, as a case study, and illustrate its performance in a large, semi-naturalistic deployment study.
We consider the problem of non-parametric regression with a potentially large number of covariates. We propose a convex, penalized estimation framework that is particularly well-suited for high-dimensional sparse additive models. The proposed approach combines appealing features of finite basis representation and smoothing penalties for non-parametric estimation. In particular, in the case of additive models, a finite basis representation provides a parsimonious representation for fitted functions but is not adaptive when component functions posses different levels of complexity. On the other hand, a smoothing spline type penalty on the component functions is adaptive but does not offer a parsimonious representation of the estimated function. The proposed approach simultaneously achieves parsimony and adaptivity in a computationally efficient framework. We demonstrate these properties through empirical studies on both real and simulated datasets. We show that our estimator converges at the minimax rate for functions within a hierarchical class. We further establish minimax rates for a large class of sparse additive models. The proposed method is implemented using an efficient algorithm that scales similarly to the Lasso with the number of covariates and samples size.
Real-Time Open-Domain Question Answering with Dense-Sparse Phrase Index
Minjoon Seo, Jinhyuk Lee, Tom Kwiatkowski, Ankur P. Parikh, Ali Farhadi, Hannaneh Hajishirzi
6/14/2019 (v1: 6/13/2019) cs.CL
ACL 2019; Code & demo available at https://nlp.cs.washington.edu/denspi/ ; Added comparison to Wea...
Existing open-domain question answering (QA) models are not suitable for real-time usage because they need to process several long documents on-demand for every input query. In this paper, we introduce the query-agnostic indexable representation of document phrases that can drastically speed up open-domain QA and also allows us to reach long-tail targets. In particular, our dense-sparse phrase encoding effectively captures syntactic, semantic, and lexical information of the phrases and eliminates the pipeline filtering of context documents. Leveraging optimization strategies, our model can be trained in a single 4-GPU server and serve entire Wikipedia (up to 60 billion phrases) under 2TB with CPUs only. Our experiments on SQuAD-Open show that our model is more accurate than DrQA (Chen et al., 2017) with 6000x reduced computational cost, which translates into at least 58x faster end-to-end inference benchmark on CPUs.
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We introduce Gluon Time Series (GluonTS, available at https://gluon-ts.mxnet.io), a library for deep-learning-based time series modeling. GluonTS simplifies the development of and experimentation with time series models for common tasks such as forecasting or anomaly detection. It provides all necessary components and tools that scientists need for quickly building new models, for efficiently running and analyzing experiments and for evaluating model accuracy.
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Developing countries suffer from traffic congestion, poorly planned road/rail networks, and lack of access to public transportation facilities. This context results in an increase in fuel consumption, pollution level, monetary losses, massive delays, and less productivity. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on the commuters feelings and moods. Availability of real-time transit information - by providing public transportation vehicles locations using GPS devices - helps in estimating a passenger's waiting time and addressing the above issues. However, such solution is expensive for developing countries. This paper aims at designing and implementing a crowd-sourced mobile phones-based solution to estimate the expected waiting time of a passenger in public transit systems, the prediction of the remaining time to get on/off a vehicle, and to construct a real time public transit schedule. Trans-Sense has been evaluated using real data collected for over 800 hours, on a daily basis, by different Android phones, and using different light rail transit lines at different time spans. The results show that Trans-Sense can achieve an average recall and precision of 95.35% and 90.1%, respectively, in discriminating lightrail stations. Moreover, the empirical distributions governing the different time delays affecting a passenger's total trip time enable predicting the right time of arrival of a passenger to her destination with an accuracy of 91.81%.In addition, the system estimates the stations dimensions with an accuracy of 95.71%.
We introduce a new benchmark for coreference resolution and NLI, Knowref, that targets common-sense understanding and world knowledge. Previous coreference resolution tasks can largely be solved by exploiting the number and gender of the antecedents, or have been handcrafted and do not reflect the diversity of naturally occurring text. We present a corpus of over 8,000 annotated text passages with ambiguous pronominal anaphora. These instances are both challenging and realistic. We show that various coreference systems, whether rule-based, feature-rich, or neural, perform significantly worse on the task than humans, who display high inter-annotator agreement. To explain this performance gap, we show empirically that state-of-the art models often fail to capture context, instead relying on the gender or number of candidate antecedents to make a decision. We then use problem-specific insights to propose a data-augmentation trick called antecedent switching to alleviate this tendency in models. Finally, we show that antecedent switching yields promising results on other tasks as well: we use it to achieve state-of-the-art results on the GAP coreference task.
Celiac Disease (CD) and Environmental Enteropathy (EE) are common causes of malnutrition and adversely impact normal childhood development. CD is an autoimmune disorder that is prevalent worldwide and is caused by an increased sensitivity to gluten. Gluten exposure destructs the small intestinal epithelial barrier, resulting in nutrient mal-absorption and childhood under-nutrition. EE also results in barrier dysfunction but is thought to be caused by an increased vulnerability to infections. EE has been implicated as the predominant cause of under-nutrition, oral vaccine failure, and impaired cognitive development in low-and-middle-income countries. Both conditions require a tissue biopsy for diagnosis, and a major challenge of interpreting clinical biopsy images to differentiate between these gastrointestinal diseases is striking histopathologic overlap between them. In the current study, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify duodenal biopsy images from subjects with CD, EE, and healthy controls. We evaluated the performance of our proposed model using a large cohort containing 1000 biopsy images. Our evaluations show that the proposed model achieves an area under ROC of 0.99, 1.00, and 0.97 for CD, EE, and healthy controls, respectively. These results demonstrate the discriminative power of the proposed model in duodenal biopsies classification.
Distinguishing antonyms from synonyms is a key challenge for many NLP applications focused on the lexical-semantic relation extraction. Existing solutions relying on large-scale corpora yield low performance because of huge contextual overlap of antonym and synonym pairs. We propose a novel approach entirely based on pre-trained embeddings. We hypothesize that the pre-trained embeddings comprehend a blend of lexical-semantic information and we may distill the task-specific information using Distiller, a model proposed in this paper. Later, a classifier is trained based on features constructed from the distilled sub-spaces along with some word level features to distinguish antonyms from synonyms. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms existing research on antonym synonym distinction in both speed and performance.
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